XRF measures X-rays emitted by atoms to probe the chemical elements present in an object. The p-XRF survey found interesting mineral impurities in a common blue pigment made from the copper mineral azurite. The team then selected seven of the most interesting fragments to study, using the more powerful facilities at CHESS. The team was surprised to find the trace element barium present in the azurite blues in many of the leaves. Then we saw the maps and started seeing why; barium was there in every azurite blue we studied. The impurities and trace elements are also potentially significant indicators of where the pigments originated, and can aid in other historic and scientific inquiries.

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Cobalt blue Raman fingerprints Look at the Raman spectra of three blue pigments: Raman spectra consist of sharp peaks whose position and height are characteristic of each specific molecule. See how each differs from the other? Raman spectra consist of sharp bands whose position and height are characteristic of the specific molecule in the sample. Each line of the spectrum corresponds to a specific vibrational mode of the chemical bonds in the molecule.

Characterization and Classification of Antarctic Granite Cobbles Alex Smith, Brian Hall, and Kelsey Forward Accumulated values (XRF, point count) were analyzed relationships, and isotopic dating, New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics, v. 36, p.

Even with such weak natural radiation, radiation damage in materials generates unpaired electrons. This damage is generated even with artificial radiation. If natural radiation continues to irradiate at a constant intensity and if unpaired electrons are generated in proportion to the radiation dosage, the quantity of unpaired electrons in a material should increase in proportion to the elapsed time, and a dating method therefore becomes possible.

Other dating methods, also measuring radiation damage, e. These are based on the same principle as the ESR method, but the detection methods are different. After irradiation, the increased ESR signal intensity is measured and extrapolated back to the point where the signal intensity is 0 to estimate the gross exposed dose in natural conditions Fig. Alternatively, the signal is extinguished by heating, etc. If we assume that the natural radiation annual dose rate is constant, the age can be obtained as follows: In order to apply ESR dating, certain conditions need to be met: Many studies have proven that ESR dating is reliable for samples of coral, shell, bone, quartz, etc.

The date obtained through ESR dating needs to be put into the context of other dating methods and geological information.

How to Interpret XRF Data

Radiometric dating In , shortly after the discovery of radioactivity , the American chemist Bertram Boltwood suggested that lead is one of the disintegration products of uranium, in which case the older a uranium-bearing mineral the greater should be its proportional part of lead. Analyzing specimens whose relative geologic ages were known, Boltwood found that the ratio of lead to uranium did indeed increase with age.

After estimating the rate of this radioactive change, he calculated that the absolute ages of his specimens ranged from million to 2. Though his figures were too high by about 20 percent, their order of magnitude was enough to dispose of the short scale of geologic time proposed by Lord Kelvin. Versions of the modern mass spectrometer were invented in the early s and s, and during World War II the device was improved substantially to help in the development of the atomic bomb.

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Alternating patterns of distinct laminae are commonly identified within glacial lake deposits and are generally interpreted in the following way: However, there is actually no empirical evidence to back the claim that varves form as annual deposits over extended periods of time. It appears then, that claiming a varve is an annual event is an assumption in itself; one steeped in uniformitarian thought, but not reality.

Geologists have known for quite some time that multiple laminae may form very rapidly. French creation scientist Guy Berthault performed groundbreaking laboratory experiments demonstrating that multiple laminations can form spontaneously when sediment mixtures consisting of particles of different sizes are deposited in air, running water, or still water. This occurs because particles of different sizes have a tendency to spontaneously segregate and stratify themselves.

Even uniformitarian geologists have acknowledged that stratification can occur quickly.

Do Varves, Tree-Rings, and Radiocarbon Measurements Prove an Old Earth?

Prepared by James M. Ferguson, University of Missouri Research Reactor Introduction X-ray fluorescence XRF spectrometry is an elemental analysis technique with broad application in science and industry. XRF is based on the principle that individual atoms, when excited by an external energy source, emit X-ray photons of a characteristic energy or wavelength. By counting the number of photons of each energy emitted from a sample, the elements present may be identified and quantitated.

Precious Metals & Jewelry Analysis with Thermo Scientific Niton XRF Analyzers Niton x-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyzers, you can find out in just a few seconds the exact precious metal content in jewelry, coins, and other valuable products with assay-comparable accuracy.

Metals are shaped by processes such as: Casting — molten metal is poured into a shaped mold. Forging — a red-hot billet is hammered into shape. Rolling — a billet is passed through successively narrower rollers to create a sheet. Laser cladding — metallic powder is blown through a movable laser beam e. The resulting melted metal reaches a substrate to form a melt pool. By moving the laser head, it is possible to stack the tracks and build up a three-dimensional piece.

Extrusion — a hot and malleable metal is forced under pressure through a die , which shapes it before it cools.

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It works on wavelength-dispersive spectroscopic principles that are similar to an electron microprobe EPMA. However, an XRF cannot generally make analyses at the small spot sizes typical of EPMA work microns , so it is typically used for bulk analyses of larger fractions of geological materials. The relative ease and low cost of sample preparation, and the stability and ease of use of x-ray spectrometers make this one of the most widely used methods for analysis of major and trace elements in rocks, minerals, and sediment.

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In recent years, researchers have been making important developments to advance the effectiveness of spectroscopic techniques for biomedical uses ranging from the identification of infectious agents to measuring the edges of cancerous tumors. X-ray fluorescence XRF spectroscopy is among the techniques that can have useful medical applications. Chettle, a professor in the Department of Physics and Astronomy at McMaster University in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, uses XRF for the in vivo measurement of toxic elements in human subjects, with the goal of developing devices that can be used to investigate the possible health effects of toxin exposure.

He recently spoke to us about his research. Your research has focused on the use of XRF for noninvasive in vivo measurements of several elements in human subjects 1—4. In vivo bone lead measurements were first performed in the mid s. What has been the main motivation for developing in vivo bone lead measurement techniques with XRF? Lead Pb is toxic to humans. Nearly all Pb in the adult human body is stored in bone, and Pb stays in bone a long time, with biological half lives ranging between 5 years and 30 years.

Taken together, these facts mean that bone Pb reflects long-term Pb exposure and measurements of bone Pb provide insight into the long-term human metabolism of Pb. Several research groups have therefore used in vivo XRF bone Pb measurements to study the metabolism of Pb and to investigate the relationship between health effects in chronic Pb exposure, both in the workplace and in the general environment.

Can you briefly describe the major advances in the technique since the s with respect to instrumentation, method, and minimum detectable level? There were two main advantages:

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December 18, Archaeologists think that the technology of smelting iron from terrestrial iron ores was invented in the Near East around B. But some ancient iron objects are much older than that — including the oldest iron objects known, a handful of iron beads found in a tomb at Gerzeh in northern Egypt that are dated to B.

The analyzer is able to determine the chemical composition of an object with a non-destructive scan of the surface. Jambon found that iron meteorites have a distinctive chemical signature, with high levels of nickel or cobalt. But Jambon found that the Gerzeh beads and all other ancient iron objects from the Bronze Age are all made with iron from meteorites — and that the iron-rich space rocks were probably the only source of the metal on earth until the start of the Iron Age around B.

Advances in X-ray Analysis, Volume 54 A key result of Fig. 6 is that the relative XRF counts for spectrum collected at = 2° is independent of for angles near 2°.

The author’s full title is “A metals analysis of silver Roman imperial coins using X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. Questions about these analyses should be directed to the author–PM me for his email address. Contrary to popular belief, the debasement of the Roman denarius was not as linearly progressive as had been initially believed. The testing performed also shows an apparently unrecorded method of counterfeiting late Roman silver coins as well as a blueprint for using this technology as a means to detect forgeries.

One of the most popular has been X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy XRF. However, as the process is both expensive and time-consuming the studies have generally been limited in scope. As a result, numismatic researchers have needed to piece together the published data to form a cohesive understanding of the various alloys in use. Gaps in the data have been filled in through extrapolation or speculative hypotheses and where published data conflicts, as is to be expected from disparate methodologies and equipment used, reconciling the differences has resulted in controversy.

This late-model unit comes with a 40kV X-ray source and utilizes a silicon drift detector along with multiple ionization beams for its readings. The beam area focus was approximately 10mm. Here I will snip out a lengthy discussion of calibration. If you want to read it, go to the link above or PM me for the complete report in pdf. The amount of information obtained defies any easy way to portray the data holistically and, in fact, lends itself well to having different aspects published separately.

Geological Sample Preparation

For the last three years, Eastern Applied has been a primary distributor of Hitachi’s high performance x-ray fluorescence XRF analyzers. However, at the end of , Hitachi acquired the Industrial Analysis division of Oxford Instruments which includes XRF and discussions on Eastern Applied’s distribution role had been in discussion since. Eastern Applied is happy to move forward with an expanded role in the distribution of Hitachi x-ray fluorescence analyzers.

In addition to coating thickness measurement systems both XRF analyzers and contact gauges and the EA-Series for elemental analysis , Eastern Applied will now be a regional distributor of Hitachi “bulk x-ray fluorescence”. The bulk analyzers come over from Oxford Instruments and include the X-Supreme and newly launched LabX replacing the popular LabX for petrochemical and mineral analysis interests.

The sales territory varies based on analyzer model but the primary region is the Eastern United States.

The University of Southern Maine XRF X-Ray Radiation Protection Program. 2 University of Southern Maine Department of Environmental Sciences Bailey Gorham Hand Held XRF Analyzer X-Ray Radiation Protection Program 1. Purpose The purpose of this X-Ray Radiation Protection Program (XRPP) is to minimize radiation.

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Abstract Thermoluminescence TL dating and multivariate statistical methods based on radioisotope X-ray fluorescence analysis have been utilized to date and classify Syrian archaeological ceramics fragment from Tel Jamous site. We have selected four fragments from Tel Jamous site to determinate their age using thermoluminescence TL method; the results revealed that the date assigned by archaeologists was good.

An annular Cd radioactive source was used to irradiate the samples in order to determine their chemical composition and the results were treated statistically using two methods, cluster and factor analysis. This treatment revealed two main groups; the first one contains only the three samples M52, M53, and M54 from Mar-Takla site, and the second one contains samples that belong to Tel Jamous site local.

Introduction Analysis of archaeological ceramics can confirm the information recorded in historical documents, such as trade routes linking populations of different areas, and help to find out the chronology of events. Establishing databases of Syrian ceramics, by using many techniques, was started a few years ago. The classification of ceramics based on typology is one of useful methods, but only when applied to whole or reconstructed objects [ 1 , 2 ].

The chemical composition of the made ceramics is unique and related to sources identification of provenance [ 3 — 5 ], from which they were fashioned. In order to classify ceramics, we need to determine the chemical composition of a large number of samples and they should be from a single site and from a single period.

To reach this goal many techniques were applied, since the initial ceramics study by Sayre and Dodson [ 6 ], such as X-ray fluorescence XRF [ 7 , 8 ], proton induced X-ray emission PIXE [ 9 , 10 ], and neutron activation analysis NAA [ 3 , 5 , 11 , 12 ].

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Forensic Science for Antiques Revealing art secrets—and exposing forgeries A horse touted as being from the Tang dynasty, but with only one genuine part in the unglazed underside. But the news was not good. After testing them, the Rafter Radiocarbon Laboratory in New Zealand declared the samples less than 50 years old. We’ve all marveled at the forensic wizardry that traps villains on such TV hits as CBS’s “CSI” “Crime Scene Investigation” , but dazzling science is also exposing secrets in another, more refined field—art.

Armed with the latest technology, art historians are becoming cultural detectives, piecing together the puzzle of an item’s past and, in the process, helping differentiate genuine from bogus.

of x-ray fluorescence technology and other alternative. methods for measuring lead in paint or other surface. coatings when used on a children’s product or furniture. article in order to determine compliance with part Testing Toys for Lead with a Handheld XRF Analyzer.

Vanta analyzers with Coating Method functionality can measure the thickness of coatings on metals, plastics, glass, and even wood. Threaded screws that have been coated. Benefits of using XRF for coating measurement Accurate thickness measurements help manufacturers deliver quality products while also controlling costs. Coatings should be only as thick as they need to be to do their job; creating products with coatings that are too thick increases manufacturing costs.

Using a tool that is fast, efficient, and nondestructive helps provide quality control both on the product line and in the field. A Vanta analyzer can provide test results in as little as 10 seconds, and the results can be refined with a one point calibration shot that can be completed in just 30 seconds.

Do Varves, Tree-Rings, and Radiocarbon Measurements Prove an Old Earth?

As of , X-ray fluorescence instruments are available in portable models, as well as laboratory-based units. Data obtained from these instruments is only useful if the data is interpretable. XRF is widely used in geologic analysis, recycling and environmental remediation efforts. The basics of interpreting XRF data involve the consideration of signals that arise from the sample, instrument artifacts and physical phenomena. The spectra of the XRF data allow a user to interpret the data qualitatively and quantitatively.

Superior Technically, Supported Locally. XRF Equipment • Local Tech Support, Worldwide • Standards • ISO/IEC Accredited Lab.

XRF analysis requires relatively small sample sizes and is not sample destructive. If a sample is received early enough on a particular business day it will be processed by the next business day. Business day is referring to the specific calendar day and not a particular time. We strive to deliver reports during business hours on the day the samples are due to be processed, however, this is not always possible and so reports may be sent electronically late at night.

If samples are delayed in their delivery, for instance being delivered by the carrier in the evening, next business day service may not be possible in every instance. If a sample is very time sensitive arrangements should be made before your sample is shipped to ensure the most rapid turnaround and in some instances same day processing can be arranged if we are aware of your needs and when the sample will be arriving.

Jane Willenbring – Cosmogenic Nuclide Applications